Pakistan 1947 – 2015
Bumpy Road To Progress,
But The Climb Continues
(M. Javed Naseem)
August 14 commemorates the Independence anniversary of Pakistan. Today, Pakistan is the most advanced Islamic country in the world! Despite the road-blocks, it keeps marching on the road to progress. The road is bumpy and those bumps and blocks are created by international conspiracies, from across the border infiltrations, terror acts and subversive activities of disloyal elements, foreign agents and enemies of Islamic Republic who are trying to make Pakistan a secular or socialist state. But the positive climb continues.
Pakistan is the fortress of Islam. It was created in the name of Allah (‘La ilaha illa-Allah’ being its slogan) and it’s going to stay no matter how much effort the enemies of Islam are putting in to destroy it. It’s progressing at a normal pace. It’s the symbol of the ‘Light of Allah’ and the infidels or unbelievers cannot blow it out.
“Pakistan has the fastest growing
Nuclear program in the world.
By 2020, the Islamic Republic
could have a stockpile of fissile
material that, if weaponized, could
produce as many as 200 nuclear devices,
roughly equivalent to the size of the
United Kingdom's nuclear arsenal.”
Some say that Pakistan is facing political and economic instability due to some security issues and political infighting. But, at the same time, some Western experts see Pakistan’s march on the road to success pretty consistent and unstoppable. Even in the political arena of Europe and America, people with Pakistani origin are advancing.
Pakistanis In British Parliament:
2015 is a remarkable year! A record number of 42 non-white MPs were elected in recent British parliamentary elections, many from white majority areas. That number includes 10 members of Pakistani origin, 10 of Indian origin and 3 of Bangladeshi origin.
Somebody said that it was an eye-opener for PTI Government in KPP for not allowing women to cast their votes in the recent bye-election held in Dir (north Pakistan).
The 10 MPs of Pakistani origin are:
1. Former Pakistani TV actress Tasmeena Shaikh, representing the Scottish National Party.
2. Yasmin Qureshi of the Labour Party from Bolton South East.
3. Labour Party’s Naz Shah, a 41-year-old disability rights campaigner who defeated her left-wing rival popularly nicknamed “Gorgeous George” Galloway from Bradford West. Naz has an incredible life story of her own. She was brought up in poverty, taken to Pakistan to escape domestic abuse and then forcibly married. Shah's mother ended up killing her abusive partner and going to jail after suffering a long time in silence.
4. Imran Hussain was also elected on the Labour Party ticket.
5. Sadiq Khan of the British Labour Party was elected from Tooting.
6-7. Shabana Mehmood and Khalid Mehmood were elected from Manchester.
8-10. Weldone's Conservative candidate Nusrat Ghani (8), Gillingham & Rainham's Conservative candidate Rehman Chishti (9), and Bromsgrove's Conservative candidate Sajid Javed (10) were also elected.
Pakistan Is Progressing!
|(Pak-China Economic Corridor: A $46billion mega-project of 3,000km network of highways, railways and pipelines from Gawadar to Kashgar to make Pakistan richer and stronger than ever before, a strategic game-changer. Construction began in 2015)|
Pakistan could have
200 nuclear weapons by 2020.
Here's a report broadcast by the German TV/Radio giant Deutsche Welle (The Voice of Germany):
While many states are downsizing their nuclear stockpiles, Asia is witnessing a buildup. Pakistan, located in a region "most at risk of a breakdown," has the fastest-growing nuclear program, as Gregory Koblentz tells DW (Deutsche Welle).
In this context, Pakistan has the fastest-growing nuclear program in the world. And as Koblentz says in a DW interview, by 2020, the Islamic Republic could have a stockpile of fissile material that, if weaponized, could produce as many as two hundred nuclear devices, roughly equivalent to the size of the United Kingdom's nuclear arsenal.
The only four countries currently expanding their nuclear arsenals are China, India, Pakistan and North Korea. Although each nation's buildup is motivated by different reasons, the combination makes Asia the center of a new nuclear arms race.
India and Pakistan's slow-motion arms race picked up speed in 1998 when both countries conducted multiple nuclear tests. The ensuing nuclear and missile buildup by both countries shows no signs of abating. Last month, Pakistan tested two missiles capable of carrying nuclear warheads: the 900-kilometer range Shaheen-1A (Hatf-IV) and the 1,500-kilometer range Shaheen 2 (Hatf-VI).
Since their nuclear tests in 1998, India and Pakistan have fought one low-intensity war (the 1999 Kargil War) and experienced two serious crises spurred by terrorist attacks (allegedly) launched from Pakistan (the 2001 attack on the Indian Parliament and the 2008 Mumbai attack). The geographic proximity of the two countries complicates crisis management since the flight times of ballistic missiles is measured in minutes. Finally, while both states claim to seek only a credible minimum nuclear deterrent, regional dynamics have driven them to pursue an array of nuclear and missile capabilities.
After the 1999 Kargil War, India developed a new doctrine of rapid, limited conventional military operations designed to punish Pakistan but remain below Pakistan's presumed nuclear threshold.
In response, Pakistan has begun deploying tactical nuclear weapons, such as the Nasr (Hatf-IX) short-range ballistic missile, to deter even limited Indian military intervention. Since the conventional military imbalance between India and Pakistan is expected to grow thanks to India's larger economy and higher gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate, Pakistan's reliance on nuclear weapons to compensate for its conventional inferiority will likely be an enduring feature of the nuclear balance in South Asia.
According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, Pakistan currently has enough fissile material, in the form of highly enriched uranium and plutonium, for about 100-120 nuclear weapons.
However, Pakistan is expanding its capability to produce even more weapons-grade material. By 2020, it could have sufficient weapons-grade uranium and plutonium to manufacture more than 200 nuclear weapons, roughly equivalent to the size of the United Kingdom's nuclear arsenal.
|(JF-17 Thunder became the first indigenous combat aircraft produced by Pakistan)|
In addition, Pakistan is constructing a fourth reactor at this site and expanding its ability to reprocess the spent fuel from these reactors to obtain additional plutonium. Once all four reactors and associated reprocessing facilities are complete, Pakistan will be able to produce an estimated 10-12 bombs-worth of plutonium a year.
The next crisis between India and Pakistan could be sparked by a cross-border military incursion, a mass-casualty terrorist attack, or a high-profile assassination. The growth of nuclear and missile capabilities on the subcontinent since 1998 has increased the risk that such a crisis could escalate in unforeseen and dangerous ways.
As India and Pakistan deploy new nuclear forces, such as cruise missiles, tactical nuclear weapons, and sea-based nuclear missiles, new challenges to crisis stability, deterrence, and command and control will arise. If India and Pakistan don't change their current trajectory, a nuclear crisis, or even worse, is likely to occur.
(Gregory Koblentz is an Associate Professor in the School of Policy, Government and International Affairs at George Mason University and author of the Council on Foreign Relations report, "Strategic Stability in the Second Nuclear Age.")
(Courtesy: DW Germany)
Pakistan’s Golden Era:
|(President Muhammad Ayub Khan with Dwight D. Eisenhower and John F. Kennedy)|
Land reform, consolidation of holdings, and stern measures against hoarding were combined with rural credit programs and work programs, higher procurement prices, augmented allocations for agriculture, and, especially, improved seeds were introduced as part of the Green Revolution. However, academics have argued that that while the HYV technology enabled a sharp acceleration in agricultural growth, it was accompanied by social polarization and increased inter personal and inter regional inequality.
|(Tarbela Dam, 50km from Islamabad, on the Indus river in Pakistan, is the largest earth filled dam in the world, second largest by structural volume. It was constructed in 1968)|
1980s-1999: Era of
Privatization and Stagnation:
According to Sushil Khanna, professor at the Indian Institute of Mass Communication, the Pakistani economy under President Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq benefited from a number of special factors, both domestic and external. The completion of the long gestation period Tarbela Dam helped unleash an unprecedented agricultural growth, while fertilizer and cement investments contributed to the industrial growth.
Tremendous boost to economic activity was provided by rising worker remittances, which rose to a peak of US $3 billion in 1982-83. In 1982-83, these remittances were equivalent to 10% of the gross national product of Pakistan. Zia also successfully negotiated with USA for larger external assistance, unprecedented in the history of Pakistan.
|(Spread over 1700 acres (about 7square km) Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, is the top university in Pakistan. It was constructed in 1967 and has currently 7,800 students enrolled)|
As an aftermath of the 1990 general elections, the right-wing conservatives under the leadership of Nawaz Sharif came to power for the first time in the history of Pakistan. Nawaz Sharif struck the stagflation with full force after forcefully implementing the Privatization and economic liberalization programs. The stagflation was temporarily ended in the country.
|(Pakistan rolled out 4G in mobile communication in 2014, aiming to capitalize on over 140 million mobile phones in the country)|
|(Pakistan developed first motorway in South Asia in 1997. Today it has been expanded to over 1,000km long operational network with another 1,500km planned for next 10 years)|
Growth and Re-stagnation
Under Shaukat Aziz’z government, the country's national economic growth
improved at the rate range by 6.4% to 9.0% a year. All revenue collection
targets were met on time for the first time in the history of Pakistan, and
allocation for development was increased by about 40%. However, this economical
success is attributed largely to debt reduction and securing of the billion
dollars worth US aid to Pakistan in
return for the support in the US-led war on terror.
Moreover, despite a series of internal and external distresses, economic situation of Pakistan improved significantly and reserves increased to US$10.7bn on 30th June 2004, as compared to US$1.2bn in October 1999. Exchange Rate became stable and predictable; the inflation rate dropped to 3.5% during the last 3 years as against 11–12% in 1990.
Nawaz Sharif inherited an economy crippled with many challenges including energy shortages, hyperinflation, mild economic growth, high debt and large budget deficit. Shortly after taking power in 2013, Sharif won a $6.6 billion loan from the IMF to avoid a balance-of-payments crisis. Lower oil prices, higher remittances and increased consumer spending are pushing growth toward a seven-year high of 4.3 percent in the fiscal year of FY-2014-15.
|(A 1,000MW Quaid-i-Azam Solar Park was constructed in 2015 in Bahawalpur, 100MW operational today. It is the largest in the country, and once fully completed would be the largest in the world)|
|(Gawadar port project, one of the biggest in Asia, is under construction now)|