The Last Hajj Sermon
The 1st Charter of Human Rights
(M. Javed Naseem)
Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.)’s last sermon (Khutbah) at the Farewell Hajj (Hajjat-ul Wadaa), delivered at Arafat in the year
632 A.D., was the first recorded Declaration
(or Charter) of Human Rights of this planet Earth.
Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.) undertook his farewell pilgrimage in the year
10 A.H. It was the first and
the last pilgrimage made by Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.). Thousands of people from
far and near joined the gathering (as per one estimate: 114,000) because this
pilgrimage served as a model to perform the fifth pillar of the Faith – Hajj.
Every Muslim wanted to see how Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.) performed the rituals;
and the faithful have been emulating him since then.
This sermon was not only a reminder to his followers (Muslims), but also an important admonition for the nations of the world. The final sermon confirmed the end of his Prophetic Mission. It was the year
10 A.H. of the Islamic
Calendar which is considered as one of the most
significant years in Islamic history for three reasons:
Firstly, this was the year when the Prophet (s.a.w.) delivered his Last Sermon during his ‘farewell’ pilgrimage to
Secondly, this was the year when number of local and foreign deputations came to the Prophet (s.a.w.) and embraced Islam along with their tribes.
Thirdly, it was the ‘golden period’ of Islam as this ‘Deen’ of Allah started flourishing and taking its roots even outside Arabia because multitudes of people overseas joined the Islamic community by converting to Islam after accepting the message of the Prophet (s.a.w.).
Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.)’s final sermon was delivered during the Hajj of the year
Five days before Dhul Hijjah, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.) put on Ahram, the pilgrim’s garb, and set out to Makkah with more than 100,000 Muslims. All his wives accompanied him. As he rode, he recited "Labbaik! Allahumma Labbaik! Labbaika Laa shareeka Lak, Innal Hamda wan niamata laka wal mulk, la shareeka lak", signifying: "Here I am at Your service; here I am, O’ Lord! Here I am to declare that there is no partner with You. All praise and blessings belong to You and all sovereignty is Yours. I am here at Your service, and You have no partner, O’ Allah!"
As the Holy Prophet recited the above call, all his Companions repeated the same loudly.
Throughout the route, big and small groups of people (pilgrims) kept joining the entourage as the word had already spread that the Prophet (s.a.w.) was going to Makkah to perform Hajj, for the first and the last time.
The Prophet (s.a.w.) reached Makkah on the 5th of Dhul Hijjah. He circled around Kaabah seven times (performing Tawaf), offered two Rakaats of prayer at ‘Maqam-e-Ibrahim’ (Abraham’s place). While climbing the Mount of Safa, he declared, "There is no God but Allah. He has no partner. All sovereignty and praise belong to Him. He gives life and brings death. He is All-Powerful and Supreme over everything."
On the 8th of Dhul Hijjah, the Prophet (s.a.w.) left with his companions for Mina and spent the night there, and on the 9th, after the Fajr (dawn) prayer, He proceeded to Plains of Arafat where he delivered the famous sermon, known as the ‘Last Sermon (Khutbah) of Farewell Hajj’.
The ‘last sermon’ of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.) is not only remarkable for its eloquence, but it contains a sublime message for the entire human race. It was a declaration of Human Rights and moral values, a charter of Women’s Rights. The world has not been able to lay down better principles of ethics and morality than those enunciated in it. Every word of it breathes a spirit of magnanimity and aims at establishing righteousness, justice and fair dealing among men on a workable basis. It establishes brotherhood among Muslims irrespective of the divergence of their geographical, racial and color backgrounds, and provides an outline of a social order, perfectly free from oppression and social injustice. It was the declaration of finality of the Holy Messenger’s Prophet-hood. It was at that point that Allah also declared that at that particular day, HE had perfected this ‘Deen’ called Islam, thus leaving no room for any changes or alterations.
But man happens to be wicked and corrupt. He takes the bait from Shaitan (Devil) quickly and plays the fool at his hands, forgetting God. He corrupted the Scriptures and altered/edited the Divine Message of every prophet or messenger of God, to suit his own comfortable worldly life. So, he altered the text of this sermon of the Prophet (s.a.w.) too, despite the fact that there were more than 100,000 (as per one narration: 114,000) people listening as ‘eye witnesses’ to this historic event.
There are three different versions of the last sermon of the Prophet (s.a.w.) in the books and on the internet. If one is authentic and correct, then the remaining two are not authentic! What does it say? It says: Shame on you Muslims, you are not even capable of safeguarding and preserving your heritage!
Here’s the text of the Final Sermon! I am just hoping and praying to Allah that I made the right selection, In-sha-Allah. Allah knows best.
"All praise is due to Allah, so we praise Him, and seek His pardon and we turn to Him. We seek refuge with Allah from the evils of ourselves and from the evil consequences of our deeds. Whom Allah guides aright there is none to lead him astray; and there is none to guide him aright whom Allah leaves astray. I bear witness that there is no God but Allah, the One, having no partner with Him. His is the sovereignty and to Him is due all praise. He grants life and causes death and is Powerful over everything. There is no God but Allah, the One; He fulfilled His promise and granted victory to His bondsmen, and He alone routed the confederates (enemies of Islam)”.
“O People! Listen to my words carefully, for I do not know whether we shall ever meet again and perform Hajj after this year”.
"O You people! Allah says: 'O people! We created you from one male and one female and made you into tribes and nations, so as to be known to one another.' Verily, in the sight of Allah, the most honored among you is the one who is most pious (God-fearing). There is no superiority for an Arab over a non-Arab and for a non-Arab over an Arab; nor for the white over the black nor for the black over the white except in righteousness (God-consciousness)."
“All mankind is the progeny of Adam and Adam was fashioned out of clay. Behold! Every claim of privilege, whether that of blood or property, is under my heels except that of the custody of the Kaabah and supplying of water to the pilgrims”.
“O people of Quraish! Don’t appear (on the Day of Judgment) with the burden of this world around your necks, whereas other people may appear (before the Lord) with the rewards of the hereafter. In that case I shall avail you naught against Allah”.
“Behold! All practices of the days of ignorance are now under my feet. The blood revenges of the days of ignorance are remitted. The first claim on blood I abolish is that of Ibn Rabiah bin Harith who was nursed in the tribe of Saad and whom the Hudhayls killed”.
“All interest and usurious dues accruing from the times of ignorance stand wiped out. And the first amount of interest that I remit is that which Abbas ibn Abd-al Muttalib had to receive. Verily it is remitted entirely”.
“O people! Verily your blood, your property and your honor are sacred and inviolable until you appear before your Lord, as the sacred inviolability of this day of yours, this month of yours and this very town (of yours). Verily, you will soon meet your Lord and you will be held answerable for your actions”.
“O people! Verily you have got certain rights over your women and your women have certain rights over you. It is your right upon them to honor their conjugal rights, and not to commit acts of impropriety, which if they do, you are authorized by Allah to separate them from your beds and chastise them, but not severely, and if they refrain, then clothe and feed them properly”.
“Behold! It is not permissible for a woman to give anything from the wealth of her husband to anyone but with his consent”.
“Treat women kindly, since they are your helpers and not in a position to manage their affairs themselves! Fear Allah concerning women, for verily, you have taken them on the security of Allah and have made their persons lawful unto you by words of Allah”.
“O people! Allah, the Mighty and Exalted, has ordained to every one his due share (of inheritance). Hence there is no need (of special) testament for an heir (departing from the rules laid down by the Shariah)”.
“He who attributes his ancestry to other than his father or claims his clientship to other than his master, the curse of Allah is upon him”.
“All debts must be repaid, all borrowed property must be returned, gifts should be reciprocated and a surety must make good the loss to the assured”.
“Beware! No one committing a crime is responsible for it but himself. Neither the child is responsible for the crime of his father, nor the father is responsible for the crime of his child”.
“Nothing of his brother is lawful for a Muslim except what he himself gives willingly. So do not wrong yourselves”.
“O People! Every Muslim is the brother of every other Muslim, and all the Muslims form one brotherhood. And as for your slaves, see that you feed them with such food as you eat yourselves, and clothe them with the clothes that you yourselves wear”.
“Take heed not to go astray after me and strike one another’s necks. He who (among you) has any trust with him, he must return it to its owner”.
“O people! Listen and obey, though a mangled Abyssinian slave is appointed your Ameer, provided he executes (the Ordinance of) the Book of Allah among you”.
“O people! No Prophet would be raised after me and no new Ummah (would be formed) after you”.
“Verily, I have left among you that which will never lead you astray, the Book of Allah, which if you hold fast, you shall never go astray”.
“And beware of transgressing the limits set in the matters of religion, for it is transgression of (the proper bounds of) religion that brought destruction to many people before you”.
“Verily, the Satan is disappointed at ever being worshiped in this land of yours, but he will be pleased by obedience in anything (short of worship that is) in matters you may be disposed to think insignificant, so beware of him in your matters of religion”.
“Behold! Worship your Lord; offer prayers five times a day; observe fast in the month of Ramadan; pay readily the Zakat (poor-due) on your property; and perform pilgrimage to the House of God and obey your rulers and you will be admitted to the Paradise of your Lord”.
“Let him that is present, convey it unto him who is absent, for many people to whom the message is conveyed may be more mindful of it than this audience”.
Then he asked the audience: “And if you were asked about me, what would you say?"
They answered: "We bear witness that you have conveyed the trust (of religion) and discharged your ministry of Prophet-hood and looked to our welfare."
Thereupon, Allah’s Messenger (s.a.w.) lifted his forefinger towards the sky and then pointing towards people said:
"O Lord! Bear You witness unto it".
"O Lord! Bear You witness unto it".
(Khutbat-ul-Hajjatul Wida, Seerat Ibne Hesham)